The tragedy of
brought a wave of turmoil in the heartland of the Muslim world as well as to the house of Abu Sufyan. Karbala
After the death of Yazid bin Muawiyah in 64 AH, the succession to the throne came to his son Muawiyah bin Yazid. However, he declined it. He considered the Caliphate to have been usurped by his family, and refused to have any thing to do with it. For forty days, he did not leave his quarters in the palace. It is said that he died there with the cause of death unknown. Marwan bin Hakam, who had been managing the govenunent during this period of lull, declared himself the next caliph. However, the caliphate of Marwan was only short lived. He died in the year 65 AH and his son Abd al-Malik became the Caliph.
, there was a faction of the believers who felt penitent over their betrayal of Imam Husain, and having the Umayyads butcher the innocent members of his family. This is known as the Tawwabun movement. They mustered a force of 16,000 strong under Sulayman bin Surad and marched towards Karbala . The Umayyad force met them at Ain ul-Wada on the Syria Euphrates. The Tawwabun charged with desperate passion, but perished at the hands of the superior Syrian army. Only a few returned to tell the story of the disaster.
There were others who were confused over why Imam Ali Zain al Abideen was not taking up arms against the tyranny of the Umayyads. They converged towards Muhammade Hanafia, the pious uncle of the Imam and wanted him to lead them against the tyrants. However, the question over the rightful successor to Imamate was settled in favor of Imam Ali Zain al Abideen the two met for Haj in Makkah. The separatists were not satisfied as the Imam refused to take up arms against the ruler or to participate in any political ambition.
The death of Yazid did bring a new wave of revolution in the
. Abd Allah bin Zubayr became more active in Makkah in pursuit of his campaign for a separatist movement which he had started in 64 AH. He was able to gather support for his claim from Hijaz, as well as the provinces of province of Hijaz Iraq and . After establishing his rule in these provinces, he started his own campaign of revenge against the friends and the family of Imam Ali on account of the disposition of his father who had joined the army of Ayesha in the battle of The Carnel. The veterans like the pious Muhammad Hanafia and Ibne Abbas, among others, were arrested for execution. However, they were salvaged by the short rule of Muk-htar that had just been established in Kufa in 64 AH. Yemen
After the disaster of Ain ul-Wada, the Kufans rose again under Mukhtar bin Abu Ubaid al-Thaqafi. They sacked the governor of Abd Allah bin Zubayr and installed Muk-htar as their caliph. Muk-htar approached Imam Ali Zain al-Abideen to endorse his political venture against the Umayyad tyrants, and to lead his followers. The Imam declined his invitation. However, Mukhtar then turned to Muhammade Hanafia and was able to enlist him to be his patron. Thereafter, in the year 66 AH, in a series of successful battles, his forces rounded up the captains of the Umayyad army who were responsible for the massacre of
and the sack of the holy cities of Madinah and Makkah, and had them beheaded for their despicable crimes. Karbala
In 67 AH, Abd Allah bin Zubayr regained control of the
and sent his own brother Mus'ab bin Zubayr against Mukhtar. The city of province of Iraq was besieged and taken. Muk-htar was defeated and killed in battle. Kufa
When Abd al-Malik became the caliph, Abd Allah bin Zubayr was fairly established in Hijaz and
. He decided to reclaim Hijaz and Iraq under the Umayyad rule. He chose Hujaj bin Yusuf as his right hand commander and despatched him to Iraq to subdue the rebel provinces. To this end, the caliph and his governor together earned for themselves the title of the most cruel and tyrannical rulers in the history of Islam. Hujaj achieved his goals by a whole sale massacre of all those who claimed any connection with Imam Ali or his progeny. The holy city of Iraq was ransacked once again, and slaughtered the separatist Abd Allah bin Zubayr in Makkah in 73 AH. His head was hung over the main road leading in andout of the city. Most Aliyyids and their followers ran for their lives and escaped to the relative safety of lands on the outer periphery of the kingdom. With the elimination of Mukhtar in Makkah , and Abd Allah in Hijaz, the entire Muslim world once again came under the rule of a single Umayyad Caliph. New conquests started at the Far West and Iraq Far East of the Caliphate, and the Caliph was able to attend to the consolidation of the internal affairs as well.
However, in the same vein as his predecessors regarding the Hashimite clan, the Caliph Abd al-Malik also kept a watchftd eye on the hnarn and his family. He used to call the Imam periodically to his court in
. When Abd'al-Malik died in 86 AH, his son Walid succeeded him to the throne. Damascus
Walid was also a tyrant 'in his own ways. For the next ten years of his rule, he maintained the tradition of his predecessors and did not spare the Imam from his abuse. When he decreed that the Prophefs mosque at Madinah be enlarged the contiguous grounds were obtained by evicting the Hashimites from their homes without compensation.
The few devout believers that survived the relentless persecution of the rules of the time were grieved at the amount of abuse thrown at the Imam. Once some one taunted the Imam while he was heading to Makkah for Haj, and said, "You have chosen the relative ease of the Haj in favor of the difficulty of Jihad." The Imam replied, "Only if I had true believers behind me, I would change my Haj to Jihad."
Despite the difficult times faced by the hna-- he continued his service to Islam and to all those who sought from him the interpretation of al-Qtwan or the Sunnah of the Prophet. He managed to convey the lessons of the belief and the practice of Islam by a unique medium. He did this through prayers and supplications. These have been collected in the form of a book popularly known as SAHIFAHAS-SAJJADIYYA. An elegant English translation of this book is now available.