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Hazrat Ali a.s. ne farmaya

Tumhay aakhirat kay liay paida kiya gaya hai dunya kay liay nahi, tum mit janay lay liay banay gaye ho, hamesha baqi rehnay kay liay nahi, tum maut kay liay banay ho, zindagi kay liay nahi. tum us ghar may ho jisay har haal may chorna hai aur jehan sirf zarorat bhar ka samaan ikhatta karna hai kyu kay tum akhirat ki taraf ja rahay ho, maut tumhara peecha kar rahe hai jissay bhagnay wala bach nahi sakta aur us kay haath say nikal nahi sakta maut har haal may usay pa lay gi, lihaza us ki taraf say hoshiyar ho kyu kay aisa na ho kay wo tumhay buray halat may daboch lay aur tum tauba kay liay sochtay hi reh jao aur maut tumharay aur tauba kay darmiyaan ha'il ho jaye. Aisa ho to samajh lo kay tumnay apnay aap ko halaak kar dala.

Ref : Nahjul Balagha

Rasool-ul-lah ne farmaya

Hazrat Muhammad   nae farmaya "Jabb mairee ummat main bidatain phoot parain toe Aalim kee zimadaree hai kae apnae ilm koe zahir karae orr joe aisa na karae uss per lanat hai."

[REFERENCE: Usool e Kafi Volume 1 Page 54]

Hazrat Muhammad  nae farmaya:-

Joe iss aalam main subha karae kae musalmanoon kae amoor kee fiqr orr uss ka ehtamaam na karae woe musalmaan nahin hai. Issee tarha joe Musalmaan kee madad koe pukaar raha hoe toe joe bhee uss kee awaz per labaik na kahae woe bhee Musalmaan nahin hai

[REFERENCE: Bihar ul Anwaar Volume 74 Page 339]

Rasool  nae aik chotae sae lashkar koe dushmanoon sae jang kae liyae bhaijha jab woe logg wapiss ayae toe Rasool  nae farmaya "Unn logoon kae liyae marhaba hai joe chotae jehad sae aa gayae orr abb unn kae ooper barra jehad baqi hai". Poocha gaya "Aae Khuda kae Rasool  Jehad e Akbar kia hai?" Aap  nae farmaya "Nafs sae jehad karna"

[REFERENCE: Wasail ul Shia Volume 11 Page 122]

Hazrat Muhammad  nae farmaya "Fuqha Rasooloon orr Paighambaroon kae uss waqt taq ameen hain jab taq umoor-e-dunya main dakhil na hoon". Poocha gaya kae aae Khuda kae Rasool  "Dunya main dakhil honae ka matlab kia hai"? Rasool  nae farmaya "Dunya main dakhil honae ka matlab hai badshah (taghoot) kee pairvee karnae lagain. Jabb Yae Ulima Sultan kee pairvee karnae lagain toe apnae dean kee hifazat main unn sae parhaiz karo".

[REFERENCE: Usool e Kafi Volume 1 Page 86, Kanz ul Amaal Hadith No. 28952]

Hazrat Muhammad  nae farmaya kae "Main apnee Ummat kae silsalae main na kissee momin sae khof khata hoon na kissee mushriq sae. Iss liyae kae momin ka Eemaan ummat koe gazand pohanchanae sae rokae ga orr mushriq ka kufar khud uss kee zilat o ruswayee ka sabab hoe ga. Haan uss munafiq kae gazand pohanchanae sae darta hoon joe charb zubaan hoe orr zubaan daraaz hoe kyonkae woe jinn cheezon kee khobee koe tum jantae hoe uss koe zubaan sae kahae gaa orr jinn sae tum koe nafrat hai uss koe anjaam dae ga"

[REFERENCE: Bihar ul Anwaar Volume 2 Page 110 ]

Hazrat Muhammad   nae farmaya "Qayamat kae din aik nida karnae wala nida karae ga kae Sitamgaar kahan hain? Sitamgaroon kae madadgaar kahan hain? joe logg Sitamgaroon kee dwaat main kapra daltae thae woe kahan hain? joe unn kee hathailee koe bandhtae thae woe kahan hain? joe unn ka qalam bandhtae thae woe kahan hain? Inn tamam Sitamgaroon koe aik jaga mehshoor karo.

[REFERENCE: Bihar Ul Anwaar Volume 75 Page 372]

Hazrat Muhammad   Nae farmaya: "Herr naikee kae ooper aik naikee hai yahan taq kae koee Rah-e-Khuda main shaheed hoe jayae jab woe Rah-e-Khuda main qatl kar diya jayae toe yae aisee naikee hai kae uss kae ooper koee naikee nahin hai.

[REFERENCE: Bihar ul Anwaar Volume 100 Page 10]

Hazrat Muhammad  nae farmaya "Sabb sae badd tar woe shakhs hai joe apnee aakhirat apnee dunya kae liyae baich dae orr uss sae bhee badd tar woe shakhs hai joe apnee aakhirat dosrae kee dunya kae badlae baich dae.

[REFERENCE: Bihar ul Anwaar Volume 77 Page 46]

Hazrat Muhammad   nae farmaya "Joe Shakhs kisse cheez main apnae Khuda koe Naraaz kar kae Badshah koe Razi karae woe Dean-e-Khuda sae Kharijj hai."


Hazrat Muhammad  (sawaw) nae farmaya "Joe Kissee Dolat Mandd Kae Paass aa kar uss kee Dolat kee wajah sae uss ka Ehteraam karae Uss ka 2/3 Dean chala jata hai"


Hazrat Muhammad  (sawaw) nae farmaya "Naiko Kaar kee Alamatain 10 hain"

1. Khuda kae liyae doastee karta hai.

2. Khuda kae Liyae Dushmani karta hai.

3. Khuda kae liyae Rafaqat karta hai.

4. Khuda kae liyae Juda hota hai.

5. Khuda kae liyae Ghussa karta hai.

6. Khuda kae liyae Khush hota hai.

7. Khuda kae liyae amal karta hai.

8. Khuda kae samnae Dast e Sawaal daraaz karta hai.

9. Khuda kae liyae Khusho o Khazo karta hai yahan taq kae Khuda sae Khof o Tarss kee Khaslat rakhta hai.

10. Khuda kae liyae Naikee karta hai.


The Twelfth Imam Mahdi a.s. (Hz. Muhammad al-Mahdi a.s.) --- The Pretenders and false claimants


Muslim history is full of claimants who have called themselves the Mahdi in practically all Muslim lands from the west to the east.  In al-maghrib (the Muslim west), the claimants took to military insurgences against decadent regimes, and against external (non-Muslim) colonial aggression.  In this regard, the middle of the nineteenth century AD was a particularly stressful time for the Muslim Ummah.  Several European countries were actively competing against each other in acquiring foreign lands as well as aggressive missionary efforts.  Many Muslim countries had become their targets, which caused several brave, as well as painful episodes of history pertaining to this era. There was an uprising unsuccessful against the British in India (1847 AD), however there was no Mahdiist claim attached to this effort.  An unsuccessful Mahdiist uprising took place in Somalia against the Italian and British encroachment.  A Mahdiist claimant was executed in Egypt when he rose against the Turko-Egyptian regime who, for their own political survival, were flirting with the West and causing the Muslim Ummah to an unworthy exposure.  Similar risings occurred in Tunisia (1860 AD), Morocco and West Africa against the French encroachments, but they also met their careers by execution.

A powerful and prolonged jihad was carried out by Sayyid al-Mahdi al-Sanusi in central Sahara against the Italians in the Libyan territory, and against the French in the Chad territory.  He was the second head of the Sanusi tarika (1859-1902 AD).  Although he never claimed to be the awaited Mahdi, people believed that he was.  Ultimately, his son Sayyid ldris bin al­Mahdi was installed as the first king of independent Libya in 1951.

Some of the historical events cited below, manifest the same reaction of the Ummah towards pressure for survival, and looking for the awaited Mahdi for salvation.  Most of these movements failed because they did not meet the criteria set forth in the ahadith quoted from the Prophet.  Consequently their effects were short-lived.  Only a few of them have survived to this day.  It is beyond the scope of this book to name them all or to describe the circumstances in which they laid their claims.  Some of these movements were considered heretic, and their followers were severely persecuted.  The proponents of these movements founded new sects, and are described briefly here.

The Fatimid Dynasty, and of the Ismailia Sect

Ubaid Allah Muhammad, claiming to be from the chain of hidden Imams descending from Muhammad bin Ismail bin of Imam Ja'far as-Saadiq migrated from Yemen, and made his way to the far west in Morocco.  There he declared himself to be the awaited Mahdi.  He laid the foundations of the Fatimid dynasty initially in Morocco, but then moved to Egypt.  He was the first Fatimid caliph (934-946 AD).  There were a total of fourteen caliphs in this dynasty.

The Ismailia evolved their own theology, which is totally different from that of the mainstream Islarn, both from the Shiite and the Sunni point of view.

About fifty years before the final demise of the dynasty, Nizar was nominated by the Fatimid Caliph al-Mustansir as his successor.  However, after the death of al-Mustansir, Nizar was ousted by the powerful vizier al­Afdhal in favor of al-Musta'li.  This led to a revolt by Nizar (I 043 AD) that was crushed, but led to serious consequences for the dynasty.  Nizar teamed up with Hasan bin Sabah, who had founded the dreaded movement called Fida e’yyen (the assassins), with their head quarters in the Far East (Central Asia.) The progeny of Nizar did not give up their aims for the high post of the caliphate, but their rebellions were also unsuccessful.

At the end of the rule of al-Abid ( 1160-1171), the Fatimid rule ended, and with that the hopes of the Nizari princes.  The present Agha Khan traces his direct lineage to Nizar, the ousted prince of the Fatimids, and continues to use the tide Prince (the political leader), as well as the Intam (the spiritual leader) of his adherents.

The Muwahids of Morocco

Muhammad bin Abdallah bin Tumart was a native of Sus, Morocco. He was born in the village of Ijilis, in the tribe of Hargha.  As a yotmg man, he decided to learn religion, and journeyed to Baghdad for it.  By the time he completed his studies, he had become an acknowledged master and a teacher.  On his way back, he preached to the locals at each of his stops, and attracted followers.  Abd al-Mu'min was one such'adherent, who later, played a key role on overthrowing the rule of al-Muravids and replacing it with the al-Muwahids.

Ibne Tumart proceeded westward to Fez where the Maliki fuqaha (jurists of the Malild School) resisted his teaching.  They asked the governor for a debate with him, at which they lost.  Threatened by his success, they prevailed on the governor and had him exiled from Fez.  He moved on to the city of Marakah, but again met with resistance from the jurists in the court of the al-Muravid ruler.  With a threat of death or fife imprisonment, he finally decided to migrate back to his home district of Sus, and settled among the Masmuda people in Timnal.

He taught religion to the people and grew strong as a leader.  He then declared himself to be the awaited Mahdi, and launched his assault on the regime of the al-Muravids under the leadership of Abd al-Mu'min.  Their first attempt was unsuccessful, with heavy loss of life, but Abd al-Mu'min escaped.  After the death of Ibne Tumart (1130 AD), Abd al-Mu'min led successful raids and finally vanquished the al-Muravids.

The Mahdawi Sect:

Syed Muhanunad Mahdi (1443-1505 AD) of Jawnpur, India, proclaimed himself to be the awaited Mahdi, and attracted some adherents in Ahmadabad, Gujrat.  He was forced to leave India, and found home in north western Afghanistan.  Upon his death, he was buried there.  His followers claimed that he could do miracles including the ability to heal the sick and raise the dead.  They were actively persecuted by sultan Muzaffar II of Gujrat (1511-1526AD), and many were put to death.  They continued to be pursued after by Aurangzeb when he was the governor of Ahmadabad (1645 AD).  As a result, they began the practice of takiyya (dissimulation).  The number of surviving adherents of this sect is uncertain.  However, in India, they are found in small groups in Bombay, Deccan, and Utter Pradesh.  In Pakistan, they are found in the province of Sindh where they are known as Zilais.

The Babi Sect:

The concept of 'the Bab', (the gateway) to knowledge of the Divine Truth (the Hidden Imam: al-Mahdi), was originated by Ahmad al-Ahsai in Iran.  He claimed to be under special guidance from the Imam, and gathered followers.  He then evolved a totally separate set of beliefs and ritual practices.  He exalted the Twelve Imams and their role in creation beyond the claims of the mainstream Shiites, to the point of polytheism.  His successor, Syed Karim Reshti (d. 1843 AD) claimed that the Hidden Imam was guiding him through his dreams.  This deviant belief was regarded with suspicion by the ruling authorities.  After the death of Syed Karim, his followers took another leader known as Mirza Ali Muhammad of Shiraz (1820-1850 AD).  Mirza Ali Muhammad had become disenchanted with the fanaticism of the mullahs (clergy) and was already preaching his revolutionary ideas in public.  He was thus perfectly suited to be the successor to Syed Karim.

By the year 1844 AD, a popular belief was circulating that the reappearance of the Twelfth Imam was imminent.  Mirza Ali Muhammad claimed that he was the Bab and in 1848 AD, he declared himself to be the awaited Mahdi.  Soon afterwards, he declared himself the revealer of a new religion, and laid down a totally new set of rules of belief and the practice of their faith.  He further expanded his role into prophethood and beyond.  He also predicted a "promised one" who would follow him and fulfill his teachings.

The authorities arrested him and sequestered him in the fortress of Maku in Azerbaijan.  He was finally transferred to Tabriz where he was condemned and executed by bullets of a Christian firing squad.

The followers of the Bab are known as the Babi or the Ahle Bayan (the followers of Bayan, the writings of the Bab).  After attempts by three Babis to assassinate Shah Nasir ud-Din, the king of Iran (I 852 AD), their sect was banned and actively persecuted as heretics.  At that time, authorities also arrested and interned Mirza Husain Ali Nuri, a young convert to the Babi doctrine.  His half brother Mirza Yaha, at age thirty years, was recognized by Babis as the successor to the Bab and called him Subhe Azal (the Eternal Dawn).

To escape persecutior4 Mirza Yahya left Iran and moved to Baghdad.  He maintained the pure form of the teachings of his master.  His followers are known as the Azali Babis.  However, the Turkish government took him from Baghdad and detained him in Famagusta (Cyprus).  Only a few members of this sect have survived.

The Bahai Sect:

Mirza Husain Ali Nuri (c. 1817-1892 AD) was -imprisoned in Tehran and later exiled. He came to settle in Baghdad in 1852 AD.In 1863 AD he declared that he was the man yuzhiruhu-Ilah, (the one whom Allah shall manifest) predicted by the Bab.  Durmg the few months that followed, he modified the Babi faith to give it a more universal appeal, and thus laid the foundation of a new religion named after his epithet Baha Ullah (die Splendor of Allah).  He was imprisoned initially in Adrianople in 1863 AD, and later moved to Acre in 1868 AD where he died in 1892 AD.

The followers of his doctrines are known as the Bahais and are spread throughout the world.  Besides the Middle East, the Bahai doctrine has found acceptance in Europe and Americas.

The Ahmadiya Sect:

This was originated by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, district Gurdaspur, Punjab, British India, (1843-1908 AD).  In the year 1900 AD, they got themselves registered with the Imperial Indian government as a separate modem Muslim Sect.

Reacting to the challenges of the West and zealous efforts of the Christian missionaries in British India, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad first declared himself to be a mujaddid (a renewer of the faith) in 1882 AD.  Soon afterwards started claiming to be the awaited Mahdi as well as the promised Messiah (Second Coming of Jesus Christ).  He even claimed to be the buniz (re-appearance) of Prophet Muhammad, and the avtar (die returning) of Lord Krishna of the Hindus.  He claimed to receive Divine Revelations, and the ability to perform miracles.  In 1889 AD, he announced that he had received orders from Allah to start accepting bayat (fealty) from his believers.

Not unexpectedly, there was uproar over these claims by the Christians, Muslims and Hindus of India.  This led to fatwas (Muslim juristic decrees), debates, contests as well as a few law suites against these claims.  However Mirza Ghulam Ahmad continued Ms office till his retirement due to old age.  Thus, until his death in 1908 AD, his affairs were run by the Sadr Anjtunane Ahmadiya.  He was succeeded by Khalifa Nur ud-Din.

After the partition of British India (1947 AD), many adherents of this sect migrated to Pakistan and built their headquarters in Rabwa.  They have spread to many Muslim countries and elsewhere in the world by their active propaganda and missionary efforts.

The sect split into two groups.  The Qadiani faction considers Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as a Nabi (prophet) and the Lahori Party who consider him only as a mujaddid (the renewer of the faith).

The Twelfth Imam Mahdi a.s. (Hz. Muhammad al-Mahdi a.s.) --- The Return of Imam a.s.



From the early days of Islam, there had been in circulation, a popular belief that al-Mahdi (as) (the rightly guided Imam) will make his appearance, (a Second Coming), towards the end of the era of human life on earth and will fill the world with justice.  Although there is no specific reference in al-Qur’an on the word Mahdi (guided), there are many references to "imam of guidance" who would lead the believers to their salvation.  This belief is further authenticated with ahadith quoted from the Prophet.  He is reported to have said, "If no more than one day remained (on earth), Allah would lengthen it until He sent a man of mine (my Ahle Bait) whose name will be like mine, and whose father's name will be like my father's name." There are numerous traditions that form the basis this belief.  This Mahdi is to be identified as the Qaim al-Muhammad, the Tweylh Imam from the Ahle Bait.  He is presently in his Ghaibat ul-Kubra and is the awaited one.  He will make his appearance only when it is Willed by Allah.

It is quoted from the Sixth Imam (Ja'far as-Sadiq (as)) that the awaited Mahdi (as) will make his appearance in the holy mosque in Makkah on a Saturday between Rukn and Maqaam.  This date will coincide with the tenth of Muharram.  He will then move to Kufa and send his forces to other directions to spread the Truth.  He will uphold justice and Islam would be the preferred religion of all human beings on earth.  He will lead the Ummah toward the path of piety and purity.

As to when the Mahdi (as) will make his appearance, it is said that a tyrant called Dajal (one who does everything in contrariety) would be ruling the world with tyranny, terror and injustice.  Isa (Jesus), the son of Mary, will also have made his appearance, and together with the Mahdi (as), the Dajal will be defeated and killed.  The Mahdi will be the Imam of the congregation.  Isa will pray behind the Mahdi.

The Twelfth Imam Mahdi a.s. (Hz. Muhammad al-Mahdi a.s.) --- Introduction of Imam a.s.


1.         The Imam considers them his rightly guided brothers who fight in way of Allah and serve Islam.

2.   The Imam remains in touch with his followers, but whatever he does has to be with Allah's permission.

3.  The Imam keeps away from the tyrant and is near to his devotee.

4.   The ills of the Ummah result from the hypocrites and those who profess only to lip service.  They arc the ones who have forsaken the Kingdom of Allah, and abandoned the Path of Righteousness.

5 . The Imam keeps his watch over the Ummah, for if he did not do so, the tyranny would have overtaken it and wiped it out of existence.                                                  

6. Dissimulation is useful for self-preservation, but should not be a deterrent for the preservation and propagation of the Faith. 7. The rulers of Iraq would be the cause of faithlessness and limitation of the provisions of Allah.

8.   Only with the grace of Allah, the tyranny would end in Iraq and bring peace and plenty to the believers.

9.   The difficulties for performing Hajj would be eliminated, and the Imam would provide assistance and guidance for it.   

10. It is incumbent on the believers to obey the ordinances of Islam to gain nearness and pleasure of the Imam. 

Some of these ordinances are:

-performance of the ritual obligations,

-adherence to acts of the Faith,

-act to prevent defamation of the Faith,

-be truthful by word and action,

-not to evade one's commitment,

-not to sell one's conscience, and prevent a split in the unity,

-harm not one's benefactor, and

-always remember that we are accountable for all our deeds.

The Twelfth Imam Mahdi a.s. (Hz. Muhammad al-Mahdi a.s.) --- Time of Imam a.s. continued..


The Birth of Imam Mahdi(as):

The intention of the Abbasid caliphs was to prevent the conception and birth of the awaited Mahdi from the union of Imam Hasan Askari (as) with Nargis Khatoon.  This was based on the several traditions circulating among the early days of Islam as well as the fact that he would be the last in the chain of the twelve representatives of the Prophet.  Further, it was believed that with the coming of the Mahdi, the tyrants will run for refuge, and the oppressed would be liberated.  As demonstrated by Allah in several places in the Qur'an, His divine Will can never be superseded.  Nargis was able to conceal her state of gravidity, and when the birth occurred, none other than Hakeema, daughter of Imam Muhammad Taqi (as), attended it.

The child was kept effectively hidden from the searching eyes of the tyrants.  Although the news had leaked out about the birth of a son to Imam Hasan Askari (as), no one could find clues to prove it.  In fact, the Caliph ordered that the estate of the Imam be kept under trust for two years to see if any of the bond women of the Imam would file a claim for heir ship for her offspring.  When he was satisfied that there was no apparent heir to the Imam, he gave up the search and closed the case.  This is probably the reason why many historians deny the very existence of a son born to the eleventh Imam.

Only the most trusted devotees of Imam Hasan al-Askari (as) knew of the birth and occultation.  Scholars and researchers of theology have obtained evidence of the existence of a "Mahdi" from sources such as the Qur'an, ahadith of the Prophet quoted through respected companions as well as quotes from Imams of the Ahle Bait.


There is evidence in the literature about the time and the types of the occultation of the Twelfth Imam including the controversies surrounding this subject.  This occultation occurred in two phases as detailed below:

Ghaibat us-Sughra (The Lesser Occultation):

This was a period of seventy years between 260 AH and 329 AH.  The Imam was not available to his followers in person, but carried out his mission of guidance through four of his most trusted emissaries.  During this period, the actual personal contact with Mm was kept to an extremely limited number.  However, the followers of Ahle Bait and his devotees kept constant communication with him for guidance.  They wrote letters to him, and he sent back written replies to them.

Ghaibat al-Kubra (the Greater Occultation):

At his deathbed in 329 AH, the last emissary of the Imam read the contents of his last letter to him. In it he said that the Imam had ordained not to appoint any new emissary to follow him because the Imam was going into the period of his greater occultation.  He said that the period of his greater occultation would be as long a period of time as Willed by Allah.  From then on, there would cease to be any physical contact with him until the time Allah would ordain his re-appearance.  Throughout the ages, there would be others making false claims to be the Awaited One, but beware of the falsehood, and seek the Truth that had already been revealed.

The Twelfth Imam (as) warned the believers to remain steadfast and not succumb to the false claims by others to be the Awaited Imam (as).  He also warned that there would be considerable doubt among the misguided regarding the very belief of his occultation.  The author considers this to be beyond the scope of this book to indulge in further discussion on the subject here because of its length as well as the attended controversies.



Up to the end of the lesser occultation, the followers and the devotees used to communicate with the Twelfth Imam (as) through his safer (emissary).  However, from the time of the death of his last safir, the tradition of written communications with the Imam has continued to this day, and there are believers who testify that they still get replies from him in some unusual ways.

The Twelfth Imam Mahdi a.s. (Hz. Muhammad al-Mahdi a.s.) --- Introduction of Imam a.s.

Name:         Muhammad

Title:        al-Mahdi (also al-Hujat, al-Qaim)

Epithet:      Abul Qasim

Father:        Hasan bin All

Mother:        Nargis Khatoon

Date of Birth: Sha'ban 15, 255 AH (July 29, 869 AD)

Place of Birth: Samarah

Ghaibat us-Sughra:     Rabi-ul Awwal 8,260 AH

Ghaibat ul-Kubra:     Shawwal 10, 238 AH

The Eleventh Imam Hasan Askari a.s. (Hz. Hasan ibne Ali a.s.) --- Sayings of Imam a.s.

Selected Quotes:

1.He told his followers:

-Be obedient to Allah, keep adherence to the practice of your Faith, never tell lies, keep the trust of some one who has placed it with you, keep good relations with your neighbors, prolong your sajdah in prayers.

-Life is but a short span and the end comes suddenly.  One who plants the seedling of good, would reap an enormous harvest of reward.  One who plants a seedling of mischief, would reap the fruit of bitterness, shame and regret.

-Being Thankful to Allah brings rewards of His great benevolence.

2.    He told one of his companions:

-Trust in Allah and keep steadfast in your prayers.

-Never refrain from paying the poor dues, lest your prayers go waste.

-Repent for your sins.

-Do not give in to anger.

-Be charitable towards your brethren, in plenty and in deprivation.

Show forbearance to peoples' ignorance.

-Ponder on ordinances of Faith.

-Forever remain within the circle of the Qur'an. -Guide others to the Truth when you have found it. 

Selected Sayings:

 1.  Do not indulge in unnecessary discussion with people lest you lose your respect.  Do not indulge in too much humor with people lest they pick up courage to slight you.

2.  It is among good manners to wish well to someone who passes you by.  When in a communal gathering, do not look for a high place for yourself

3.  It is ill manners to express happiness to someone who is grieved by some event.

4.  That person Is most cautious who pauses at place of suspicion.  That person is most reliable who fulfills his commitments.  That person is most pious who exercises avoidance of all forbidden things.  That person is performing the hardest Jehad who is committed to avoid sin.

5.  The provisions that are a promise from the Lord, are rewards earned by fulfilling the duties of obedience.

6.  One who renders advice to a fellow momin on his fault away from the public eye, has decorated him; but one who does so in the open, has in fact stripped   him.

7.  Every thing has a limit, you would harm yourself if you exceed it.

8.  One who has built relation with the Allah, loves solitude.

9.  Do not choose a method of respect to someone by which his feelings would be hurt.

10. It is no less than a miracle to teach an idiot or to break the habit of an addict.


The Commentary on Holy Qur'an By Imam Hasan Askari

As the grip of the rulers tightened and degree of suppression of the Imams increased, it became harder and harder for the followers to gain access to him to obtain direct guidance.  Since most of the questions asked used to be on the interpretation and expounding the meanings of the Book of Allah, the Imam found it necessary to have this material committed to his pen. This was collected in the form of a book known as the " Tafseer-e Askari.  "

The book that is available today is incomplete, as it does not cover the Qur'an in its entirety.  It is possible that several sections of it were lost or destroyed due to many turmoils the world of Islam had endured with time.  It is possible that the Imam had only a limited time to have such a mammoth task completed before his martyrdom.  It is also possible that he had given lectures and interpretations to some of the learned students and entrusted them to complete the task after him, and in turn they were also eliminated by the tyrants of the time.  However, what is available today, reveals the enormity of the rich language and the depths of the meanings extracted from the verses of the Qur’an.  Besides a book of learning, it is a beautiful piece of literature attributed to the eleventh pillar of the Ahle Bait for the devotees to relish and to benefit from.

The Eleventh Imam Hasan Askari a.s. (Hz. Hasan ibne Ali a.s.) --- The Life of Imam a.s.


Imam Hasan (Al-Askari) was bom in Madinah in 232 AH, during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Wathiq.  When Mutwakil had his father moved from Madinah to Samarah in 236 AH, he was only four years of age.  He suffered deprivation of the patronage of his father, Imam Ali Naqi, owing to the long spells of house arrests and formal prisons.  He was only twenty-two years of age at the martyrdom of his father in 254 AH.  He took up the responsibilities of Imamate according to the declaration that his father had made in Madinah eighteen years earlier.

During the life of his father, he endured the reign of terror under Mutwakil followed by the chain of several caliphs until the martyrdom of his father.  There was much oppression and persecution of the Alkyds during those years, and the Imam had to remain in hiding.  He used to communicate with his followers only through his most reliable representatives.  During the next five and a half years, he saw the caliphate change hands twice.  Muhtadi succeeded the Caliph Mutazz in 255 AH, followed by the Caliph Mu'tarnid in 256 AH.

Just as Umar bin Abd al-Aziz was the only benevolent caliph from the Umayyad dynasty, Muhtadi was perhaps the ordy caliph in the chain of the Abbasids who could also be called benevolent.  However, the rule of Muhtadi last for less than one year, and the hnam saw a brief period of reprieve during his reign.  Not withstanding the urgency to have an heir, the Imam married Nargis Khatoon.  There was a general air of uneasiness about this.  A rumor was circulating that the awaited Mahdi would be bom from this union.  The Imam was twenty four years of age at that time.

The rule of tyranny returned with the Caliph Mu'tamid.  He was a stonehearted ruler who took pleasure in having people beheaded for trivial faults.  He had the Imam placed in a formal prison under strict isolation.  He had instructed the wardens to inflict torture to the Imam.  However, when they went to carry out the Caliph's orders, they found the Imam either in prayers or reading the Quran.  He rotated several prison wardens with the intention to inflict harm to the Imam, but faded in his HI-destined schemes.  Most of these wardens became followers and devotees of the Imam.

Despite the difficulties imposed upon the Imam, he continued to receive deputations from his devotees from far and wide, and he continued to serve the followers with the true values of Islam through the meanings and interpretations of the Qur'an and his personal conduct of life.  Many senior and older followers of the Imam attended his sittings and clarified many questions about the Quran and the Hadith.  Seeing that there would be a continued need for correct interpretation of the Qur'an, he took up the project of writing, a comprehensive commentary of the Qur'an before he passed away.

The Caliph finally prevailed and had the Imam martyred with poison in the year 260 AH.  He sent a team of his trusted physicians to ensure the condition of the Imam and to certify his death before his burial.  Having thus completed the assignment as ordered by the Caliph, the body of the Imam was laid to rest in the same house where he had died.  He was buried in the same room where his father had died and was buried.

Contrary to the previously established tradition, the Imam did not announce the name or the identity of his successor, although there was some evidence that he had left a four-year-old heir to the Imamate.  As expected, there was considerable doubt and confusion among the followers regarding the continuation of the series of Imamate after the death of the Eleventh Imam.  The Aliyyids were in revolt in the empire at the time, and some were claiming to be the Awaited One, the Twelfth Imam contacted his followers through his safirs for their guidance.



The Imam obtained his title of al-Askari because of his residence in the garrison precinct of the Samarah.  He was able to communicate with people in their mother-tongues as he was fluent in several languages that were spoken in the empire at the time.

The Imam participated in many debates and contests held by the Caliph in an attempt to slight his dignity.  But instead, the Imam shone like full moon in the dark night of ignorance.

Despite the short span of his life that was available to his followers, he left many, respected students who continued to write and carry out researches in the path of the Truth.

The Eleventh Imam Hasan Askari a.s. (Hz. Hasan ibne Ali a.s.) --- Introduction of Imam a.s.

The Eleventh Imam: Hasan ibne Ali (AS)

Name:           Hasan

Title:          al-Askari

Epithet:        Abu Muhammad

Father:         Ali bin Muhammad

Mother:         Saleel

Date of Birth:  Rabi-ul Akhir 8, 232 AH (December 3,846 AD)

Place of Birth: Madinah

Progeny:        From Nargis Khatoon

                One son: Muhammad al-Mahdi

Date of Death:  Rabi-ul Awwal 8, 260 AH (January 1, 874)

                He lived for only 28 years

Place of Death: Samarah

Place of Burial:Samarah

The Tenth Imam Aliun Naqi a.s. (Hz. Ali ibne Muhammad a.s.) --- Sayings of Imam a.s.

Selected Quotes:

1.             Once he told his devotees, "Take good care of gifts of the Lord and thank Him for having given them to you.  Remember that the self always turn, towards gratification, and defied deterrents.  Seek to subdue its desire for vain things."

2.             He told his companion Fateh bin Yazid Jarjani, "Strive to obey Allah in all His commandments, turn to the life of the Prophet and seek Allah's help to follow it, and seek those in whom He vested the authority to interpret the Qur'an and the Islamic law."

3.             He told his companions, "Remember that day when you separate from your loved ones for ever, when no physician can keep you back, and no friend can benefit you."

4.      He told Caliph al-Mutwakil:

-"Do not expect devout obedience from someone whom you had   treated with contempt.

- Do not expect loyalty from one who you had betrayed.

- Do not expect good advice from one whom you had treated with mistrust.  His feelings for you are not any better than yours for him."

Selected Sayings:

1.             One who is pleased with his self, has more of those who would not be pleased with him.

2.             The one who is contented, has only one problem to face, but the one who bemoans, has many more problems.

3 .         Backbiting is the humor of the idiot, and the art of the ignorant.

4.          Keeping awake enhances the sweetness of sleep, just as hunger enhances the taste of food.

5 .        The world is with wealth but the hereafter only with deeds.

6.         Avoid jealousy, for it reveals your action, but none of your opponents.

7.        The worst affliction is ill manners.

8.         Ignorance and meanness are worst conduct.

9.         The world is like a market where one group benefits while the other loses.

10.         Keeping bad company shows your own flaw.

II.            Morphic beauty is only of the exterior, but wisdom is beauty of the interior.

12.          One who seeks fast motion is slave of his desires, the idiot is slave of his tongue.

The Tenth Imam Aliun Naqi a.s. (Hz. Ali ibne Muhammad a.s.) --- The Life of Imam a.s


Imam Ali (Naqi) was bom in 212 AH during the reign of Caliph Mwnoon ar-Rashid who was responsible for the death of the Imam's grandfather, Imam Ali ar-Reza.  Mamoon died in 218 AH and his brother Mue'tasim Billah became the caliph.  He was responsible for the.death of the Imam's father, Imam Muhammad Taqi.  Mue’tasim then became busy with the construction of the new capital Samrah, and in quelling a rebellion by his nephew, Abbas bin Mamoon in Baghdad.  He ruled the Islamic state till 227 AH. Like his predecessors, commanded the Ummah to obey him as their religious leader.

After the death of Mu'tasim, his son Wathiq Billah became the Caliph, and ruled for only five years till 232 AH.  He was followed by his son Mutwakil who ruled for a period of fifteen years till 247 AH.  This was one of the worst periods of suffering and oppression the members of Able Bait and their followers had to endure.

Mutwakil was a suspicious and ill-tempered ruler.  He drank alcohol much more freely than any of his other Abbasid ancestors.  He surpassed the tyrannical rule of the Umayyad duo, Hujaj bin Yusuf and his master Abd al­Malik bin Marwan.  Thousands of innocent devotees of Ahle Bait were actively sought out from their homes and killed by all kinds of atrocities.

He had forbidden the devotees of the Able Bait from visiting the shrines of Imam Husain and other Imams and martyrs.  He had imposed the penalty of amputation of one limb each time a devotee made such a trip.  He was amazed to note that there were people who paid the stiff penalty more than once to make the ziyara.  Notwithstanding his failure to deter the pilgrims from making the devotional trips, he decided to demolish the shrines.

To his further amazement his attempts to demolish the shrines or to flood them with water from diverted canals also failed.  The water would not rise high enough to flood the area.  Anyway, these schemes of the cruel caliph failed on two occasions.  But he was not about to give up his determination to eliminate the Alkyds and their influence for all times.

In 234 AH.  Mutwakil appointed Abd Allah bin Muhammad as governor of Madinah, with specific instructions to purge and to disperse the Alkyds from their homes.  The Imam wrote a letter of complaints to the Caliph about the undue pressures imposed on his household by the new governor.  This gave the Caliph the excuse to have the Imam move from Madinah to Samrah, with an escort of three hundred mounted soldiers.  The army was not sent there to protect the Imam but to have him arrested, and to prevent any possible reprisals by his devotees.

The Imam was brought to Samrah in 236 AH, and was housed in the notorious garrison precinct of the city, which was well protected with guards posted on the entrance.  While the Imam was in Madinah, the Caliph was not able to assess the popularity of the Imam among his followers.  As the people became aware of the whereabouts of the Imam they started to come to him for advice and for the interpretations of the Quran.  To prevent the people from seeking him, the Caliph kept moving the Imam's residence from house arrest to the formal prison, and from the prison to a comer of his own palace, and back again to house arrest at some other location.  He had to move the Imam from the formal prison to house arrest since the prison guards became influenced by the Imam's piety and preaching, and became his devotees.  And, he had to move him away from house arrest because of the stream of devotees the Imam used to attract.  While the Imam was under house arrest, the Caliph would send police to search his residence at odd times under the slightest excuse, looking for any munitions against his authority.  He never found clues against the Imam in all of his random searches.  Thus, the Imam was kept in virtual house arrest for a period of over twenty years during most of the period of Mutwakil's rule as well as the rule of his successors.

During this period of time, Mutwakil changed his faith from the Mu'tazill to the Shafii school.  He appointed two muftis in the two major mosques and had them instructed to get people involved in the fruitless discussions over the question of predestination, and Qadha and Qadr.  People got tangled up in the discussions designed by the Caliph.

Decadence in the state was making people feel uneasy.  The Caliph's own son Muntansir Billah, who had turned forty-two, got ambitious.  He decided to capture the caliphate for himself. With the help of some Turkish defectors, he had his father assassinated and gained access to the throne.  People paid fealty to him and prayed behind him as their spiritual leader.  However, his was a short life span, and he died within six months.  He was succeeded by his brother Musta'in (248 AH).

By the same token, the Alkyds were getting restless at the unending tyranny of Mutwakil's reign.  In 250 AH, two leaders of prominence, one from the lineage of Zaid bin Ali in Kufa and the other from Zaid bin Hasan in Tabaristan rose to carve out a zone of peace for their clans and the Shiites.  However, despite the apparent internal disruption in the Abbasid Caliphate, the Turkish army was still loyal and strong.  These, and several other uprisings in the empire were successfully crushed.

A civil war broke out in the capital city in 252 AH.  With the help of the Turkish generals, Mu'tazz had his own brother Musta'in assassinated and became the Caliph.  However, the vast nation was in turmoil and Mu'tazz felt insecure.  He considered Imam Ali Naqi, being the leader of the Alkyds, to be a possible living threat to his stability.  In 254 AH, he got the Imam killed by poison in his own home.  His body was laid to rest in the same house where he had died.

When Imam Ali Naqi left Madinah, he knew that he would not be allowed to return to his ancestoral home.  Although his son Hasan was only four years of age at that time, he had declared that after his death, his son Hasan would succeed him as the next Imam.


Having been deprived of the patronage of his father at a young age, some well wishing devotees thought that it might be appropriate to appoint a tutor for the youth.  Umar bin Farrah sent Obayd Allah Jonaidi for this purpose.  After a while he was asked on the progress of youth.  Jonaidi said that if it were asstuned that he was teaching the youth something, then they should know that the youth had taught him things he never knew.  When Mutwakil brought him to Samrah, he was only twenty-four years of age.

The Imam witnessed the waning glow of the Abbasid Caliphate when the seat of government revolved under several rapidly changing caliphs.  He refrained from the temptation of an easy win of the Caliphate for himself If he had done so, it would have shown his political ambition, and would have ruined the generations of sacrifices made by his ancestors to continue upholding the values of Truth and justice.  Ahle Bait were never thirsty for political gains.  They had lived and died for the cause and the values of Islam.

Although the Imam had a very limited exposure to his followers, he left some renowned students who expounded his word to others for many years later.  Despite their contemptuous behavior towards the Imam, he was called upon by the Caliph to answer complicated questions on the meanings and the interpretations of the Qur'an and on the Islamic law.  He had stood up in defense of Islam on many occasions in the Caliph's court.  Many of his quotes were collected by his devotees for reference in later times.  Likewise, people had also collected many of his supplications.

The Tenth Imam Aliun Naqi a.s. (Hz. Ali ibne Muhammad a.s.) --- The Introduction of Imam a.s.

 The Tenth Imam: Ali ibne Muhammad (AS)

Name:            Ali

Title:               an-Naqi  ( also al-Hadi )

Epithet:           Abul Hasan

Father:            Imam Muhanunad Taqi

Mother:            Sumana Khatoon

Date of Birth:    Zilhaj 15, 212 AH (September 27, 827 AD)

 Place of Birth:  Surba, near Madinah

Progeny From Saleel:   Four sons: Hasan, Husain, Muhammad,


One daughter:          Aliya

Date of Death:          Jamadi-ul Akhar 26, 254 AH (June 28, 868 AD)     

                                He lived to an age of 41 years

Place of Death:          Samrah

Place of Burial:          Samrah